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A cell that can change into other types.
Embryonic stem (ES)
Cell from embryo, can become any cell
Adult stem cell: Stem cell from mature animal, often from
Differentiation: Process of becoming more specialized.
Stem cells 'n blood
Growing body parts
Canine gene therapy
Watching brains learn
BMP4 Initiates Human Embryonic Stem Cell... RH
Xu et al, Nature Biotechnology, 2002; 20:1361-4.
Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts,
James A. Thomson et al, Science 1998 November 6; pp. 1145-11.
Flexible Arrangement: Neil Thiese and Ian Wilmut,
Nature, Sept. 4, 2003.
Fusion of Bone-Marrow Derived Cells... Manuel Alvarez-Dolado
et al, Nature Advance Online Publication, Oct. 12, 2003.
Homologous Recombination, TP Zwaka and J Thomson,
Nature Biotechnology, 2003; 21:319-21..
Multi-Organ, Multi-Lineage Engraftment by a Single
Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell, Krause DS et al Cell. 2001 May 4;105(3):369-77.
Multiple Organ Engraftment by Bone-Marrow-Derived
Myofibroblasts and Fibroblasts in Bone-Marrow-Transplanted Mice,
Natalie C. Direkze et al, Stem Cells 2003;21:514-520.
Plastic Adult Stem Cells: Will They Graduate from
the School of Hard Knocks, Malcolm Alison et al, Journal of Cell
Science, pp. 599-603, 2003.
Rat Brains Respond to Embryonic Stem Cells, Gretchen
Vogel, Science, Jan. 11, 2002.
Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine:
Committee on the Biological and Biomedical Applications of Stem
Cell Research Board on Life Sciences National Research Council Board
on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health Institute of Medicine, National
Academy Press, 2002.
Stem Cells Not so Stealthy After All, Gretchen Vogel,
Science, July 12, 2002.
Plasticity: Time for a Reappraisal, Constance Holden
et al, Science, June 21, 2002.
Stemness Genes Still Elusive, Gretchen Vogel, Science,
Oct. 17, 2003.
Stable Genetic Modification... M. Gropp et al, Molecular
Therapy, 2003; 7: 281-7.
The NIH stem cell portal.
Time magazine frames the debate.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science
on the ethics
and policy issues behind stem cell research.
Cell Research Foundation.
NOVA's stem cell special.
The University of Wisconsin-Madison offers a stem cell explainer and the WiCell Research Institute.
Transplant yourself over to our credits page.