What is the cause of strong winds?

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What is the cause of strong winds?
Airfield Mainz-Finthen: strong wind

The wind is simply air in motion, flowing from high atmospheric pressures to low pressures. Moving anything requires a force. Strong winds are due to a strong pressure gradient force. A pressure gradient is how fast pressure changes over distance. So, when pressure changes rapidly over a small distance, the pressure gradient force is large. Strong winds almost always result from large pressure gradients.

The Coriolis force pulls the wind to the right so that winds blow counterclockwise around lows and clockwise around highs in the Northern Hemisphere. So, if you put your back to the wind, lower pressure is to the left.

What the wind is blowing over can also influence the wind speed. Over the open lakes the wind will be faster than through a stand of trees, where it will be slowed by friction. In the presence of buildings, the air can be funneled between buildings and pick up speed.

During this time of the year, thunderstorms also can cause strong winds. Rain falling from a thunderstorm evaporates underneath the cloud, cooling the air beneath it. This cold heavy air plunges to the surface and “splashes” against the ground like a bucket of cold water. The air then rushes sideways resulting in strong winds. These “microbursts” are capable of producing winds of more than 100 mph, causing significant damage, while lasting for only 5-15 minutes.

Steven A. Ackerman and Jonathan Martin are professors in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UW-Madison, are guests on the Larry Meiller‘s WHA-AM radio show the last Monday of each month at 11:45 a.m.