The Why Files The Why Files --

Metabolic syndrome: Key to diabetes, cardiovascular disease



Richard Bergman
Professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism at the University of Southern California.

* Stephen Brietzke
Endocrinologist and diabetologist, program director, internal medicine residency, and vice-chair for education in the department of medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia.

* Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
Cardiologist, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.

* Edward Weiss
Assistant professor of nutrition and dietetics, Saint Louis University.

1 Treating metabolic syndrome: Lifestyle change or medication? Anna Emili et al, Vol 53: July 2007 Canadian Family Physician.

2 Effect of supervised progressive resistance exercise training protocol on insulin sensitivity, glycemia, lipids and body composition in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, A Misra, Diabetes Care. 2008 Mar 3.

3 Exercise and risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults, Stewart KJ et al, Am J Prev Med. 2005 Jan;28(1):9-18.

4 Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study, Ingar Holme et al, BMC Public Health 2007, 7:154 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-154.

5 DiabetAction: changes in physical activity practice, fitness, and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic and at-risk individuals, Mathieu ME et al, Clin J Sport Med. 2008 Jan;18(1):70-5.

6 Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic syndrome. A randomized controlled trial, Bo S, J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Dec;22(12):1695-703. Epub 2007 Oct 6.

7 Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, Hamilton MT et al, Diabetes. 2007 Nov;56(11):2655-67; abstract.

8 Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action induced by increasing energy expenditure or decreasing energy intake: a randomized controlled trial, Edward P Weiss et al, Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1033- 42.

9 Med Clin North Am. 2007 Nov;91(6):1041-61, Controversy in diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome, Stephen A. Brietzke.


Megan Anderson, project assistant; Terry Devitt, editor; S.V. Medaris, designer/illustrator; David Tenenbaum, feature writer; Amy Toburen, content development executive

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